I've always been interested in the subject of intelligence. As a child, my mother would call me "smart," but I quickly noticed that every parent found her children smart. In time, I discover that every child is not smart, just as every child is not cute. If that were the case, it would be a beautiful world of smart people – not what it was.
Some are smart; but are not as clever as we think, and others are smarter than they seem to be, questioning how to determine reasoning? What makes one person smarter than the other? When does "street intelligence" mean more than "book intelligent"? Can you be smart and stupid? Are the effects of genetics or the environment smarter?
Then there are questions of education, intelligence and wisdom.
What does a highly qualified person mean? What's the difference between highly trained and extremely intelligent? Are you highly trained, automatically intelligent? Can one be intelligent without being highly trained? Do IQs really mean what? What makes a wise man? Why is wisdom typical of old age?
My quest to find answers to these questions inspired by many hours of intense research that includes reading 6 books, hundreds of research papers and countless hours on the Internet; which resembles the lifespan of studies and research that play a pioneering role in intelligence and education such as Howard Gardner, Richard Sternberg, Linda S. Gottfredson, Thomas Sowell, Alfie Kohn and Diane F. Halpern whose work is in this article
My goal was simple: collecting, synthesizing and presenting data that means they are smart, smart and intelligent so anyone can understand and use them. Because of this there was no better (or better) place than at the beginning of our existence: as a fetus in the womb.
There is serious evidence that consumption of high-grain foods is vital to building a prenatal brain both before and during pregnancy. Researchers were closely related to low levels of iron disease and reduced IQ. Foods rich in iron include lime beans, kidney beans, pinto beans, spinach, asparagus, broccoli, seafood, nuts, dried fruits, oatmeal and enriched cereals
for each test and significantly lower language skills, fine motor skills and tractability than higher prenatal iron children. In essence, proper prenatal care is essential for the development of cognitive abilities. Cognitive Skills are the basic mental skills we use for thinking, learning and learning. These include a wide range of mental processes used to analyze sounds and images, recalling information from memory, combining certain information and focusing on certain tasks. Individually identifiable and measurable. The strength and efficiency of cognitive ability are directly related to the student's ease of learning.
CHILDREN, MARINE AND INTELLECTUAL IMPACT
Consumption during pregnancy is not smart. In fact, this is completely obscure. Studies in alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research show that light and moderate drinking, especially in the second trimester, is associated with lower IQs of the offspring in 10 years of age. This result particularly is about the African-American as the Caucasian offspring.
"IQ is the child's ability to learn and survive in school and everyday life Although a small but significant proportion of children are diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) every year, many other children experience alcohol during pregnancy do not meet FAS criteria, yet they lack the growth and cognitive functions, "said Jennifer A. Willford, professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh.
Paul D. Connor, Clinical Director of the Fetal Alcohol and Drug Division and Associate Professor of Psychiatric and Behavioral Sciences at Washington University, says this:
"There are several areas of cognitive functioning that even include a rela academic performance (especially arithmetic), adaptive operation and executive functions (problem-solving and empirical learning abilities). Mental, performance, adaptive and implementation deficiencies may make it more difficult to handle financial management independently, without help and understand – or respond adequately – errors. "
This is a key statement that directly addresses the definition of psychology (discussed later in this article). Studies have shown that frequent exposure of the human fetus to ultrasound waves is associated with a decrease in newborn's body weight, increased frequency of left-handedness, and reduced delayed speech.
Because ultrasonic energy is a high-frequency mechanical vibration, researchers suspect that this may affect the migration of neurons to a developing fetus Mammalian neurons multiply often in early fetal development and migrate to their final destination. The rocess may result in abnormal brain function.
Commercial companies (which are ultrasonic for "souvenir" purposes) are now able to provide popular 3D and 4D images by creating stronger ultrasonic machines. However, the procedure lasts longer when trying to produce 30 minutes of fetal videos in the uterus.
The new scientist was published in the following journal: Ultrasound examination may prevent cell separation and commit suicide. Routine scanners, which in the past 40 years have given doctors a glimpse into the fetus and internal organs, affect the normal cell cycle.
On the FDA website this information is about ultrasound: While ultrasound has been working for years, pregnant women and their families need to know that repeated ultrasound exposure to long-term effects on the fetus is not completely known. In the knowledge of those who are still unknown, they do not have a good chance of prenatal ultrasound, it is not a good idea. NATURE VERSUS NURTURE … VITA IS CONTINUING
Now that he is aware of some known factors that determine, improve and influence the intellectual development of the fetus, it is time to conceive. If this baby is born, which will be key to developing its meaning: nature (genetics) or nutrition (the environment)?
Scientists and psychologists have apparently gone back and forth for centuries. I have read a number of comprehensive studies and reports on this topic in the research phase of this article, and I think it is time to relax this debate. Both nature and education are as important and must be fully respected in the spiritual development of each child. This can not be a / or a suggestion.
According to a recent study early intervention in the home and in the classroom can make a big difference to a child born in extreme poverty According to Eric Turkheimer, psychologist at Virginia University, Charlottesville. The study concludes that while the genetic composition explains the majority of IQ differences for children in richer families, the environment – and not the genes – makes a bigger difference for minority children living in low-income homes.
What scientists call "inheritance" – genes influence IQ – was considerably lower for poor families. "Once placed in a suitable environment, genes begin to take over," said Mr. Turkheimer, "but in a bad environment genes do not have this ability."
But there are genes and accounts that contradict these findings … a kind of
Linda S. Gottfredson, professor of educational studies at Delaware University, wrote in his article The General Intelligence Factor has little to do for the IQ. Many people still misunderstand that social, psychological and economic differences between families bring lasting and significant differences to the IQ.
He found that behavioral genetics refer to environmental impacts as "shared" as they are common to the commonly grown brothers. According to her reports, the inheritance of the IQ increases with age; that is, the extent to which genetics calculate IQ differences between individuals as people are older.
In his paper, he also refers to studies that show comparative studies of the same and fraternal twins that a group led by a group in the past decade by Thomas J. Bouchard of the University of Minnesota and other scientists found that IQ differences between kindergartens were around 40 percentages of 80 years of age in adulthood
And this is probably the most interesting information and relevant to this part of my article:
Differences between individuals in age their advanced intelligence better reflects their genetic differences. Bouchard came to the conclusion that children were subjected to the circumstances of their lives by parents, schools and other representatives of society. Older people become more independent and tend to find life stages that are most fond of their genetic predisposition. Parents New Zealand's Christchurch Institute of Medicine studied more than 1,000 children between April and August 1977. Between birth and one year, information was collected on how these children were nourished.
The infants were followed by 18 years of age. Over the years, researchers have collected a wealth of cognitive and academic information about children, including IQ, school performance in reading and math, and the results of standardized tests in mathematics and scolastics. The researchers also surveyed the number of passive values achieved at national school certificates at the end of the third year of the grammar school
The results showed that longer children were breastfed, tested Thomas Sowell, Competition, IQ, Black Crimes and Facts Ignoring Liberals revealed some fascinating information that every parent should take note of. He writes:
There is a strong case that black Americans are in many disadvantages. Studies show from time to time that, prior to school, black children are on average less exposed to white children, partly because of socio-economic factors.
As long as the children of professional households typically come up with 2,150 different words each day, children in working-class households are exposed to 1250 and households have only 620 children.
Yes, the clever sounding children usually come from a trained, professional, two-parent environment that prefers valuable language skills and vocabulary from smart-sounding residents.
Mr. Sowell continues: Black children obviously are not responsible for their poor socio-economic situation, but things that go beyond the economic situation in black homes are working. Black people did not sign up for the "great mission" of the white middle class – this is a constant endeavor to encourage intellectual growth and to involve their children in Harvard or Oxbridge.
Elsie Moore, Arizona State University, Phoenix, or black or white parents, all of whom were middle class professionals. At the age of 7.5, blackheads had 13 IQ points behind the whites in their homes. At that moment, during my research, I have been raised to you and it is quite obvious to you that many children are inclined to be smart, educated and intelligent by simply exposing them to the influencing factors that determine them
] long before starting school.
the right prenatal care, the educated, communicative parents, and the nutritious environment in which they will live, each of the accumulated benefits of intellectual capability. As you can see, some children have unfair advantages from the start.
Malcolm Gladwell, author of the most popular book Outliers wrote that "accumulated benefits" are made possible by arbitrary rules. and such unfair advantages everywhere. "Successful people who are most likely to receive social opportunities that lead to further success," he writes. "The rich get the biggest tax breaks: the best students who get the best education and the greatest attention."
With this in mind, we turn our attention to education and intelligence
IT TO DO THIS MANUALLY? Alfie Kohn, author of the book What does a well-trained person mean? raises the question of whether a well-trained term refers to a school education or something about you? Does he name what he taught? Or what do you remember?
I claim that the well-trained are all in the application; use and use of information. Use information to become knowledgeable and, as we all have heard, knowledge is power.
Most people are aware of this level of education in this country. We say to our children that is nothing more important than obtaining "good" education, and every year because of government deficits teachers are dismissed, classes shrink, schools are closed and a number of educational programs – which help disadvantaged people – are slaughtered.
The reality is that we do not really appreciate the education. We value business, industrial, political ammunition and accepted forms of discrimination, but not our intention: the ability to enrich mankind and life through learning.
What we value as a society is athletes and their entertainment. The fact that a professional athlete collects more money in a season than most professors in their career in any region. You always have the money to build new sports grounds, but it is not enough to give teachers a fair (and well deserved) raise.
Ironically, the best teachers do not spend money on the profession. They teach because it's a call. Most of them were influenced by a very good teacher as a student. Because of the mass emigration of teachers, many students are not able to cultivate mentoring relationships that they once knew, as many leave the profession – voluntarily and involuntarily – over an average of three years.
In high school where I start, the focus is not on how to prepare students to prepare them for life or even college (all high school must be college preparatory schools?). standardized tests. Afterwards, the controversial "exit" examinations were carried out and literally many high schools were transformed into test centers. Learning becomes almost secondary.
This mentality goes through the university, which of course has a test that needs to be included in the enrollment (SAT or ACT). This explains why so many college students deal with the course rather than learning from it. They focus on "A" and degrees, rather than being redeemed thinkers. The latter require greater demand among employers and include most of the self-employed. "Get-the-good-grade" thinking is directly attributable to the relentless and often unnecessary testing that our students submit to schools.
Alfie Kohn supports the "exhibition" of learning, in which students understand the tools of in-depth projects, assignment portfolios and other demonstrations.
Cites the groundbreaking model of Ted Sizer and Deborah Meier. Meier emphasized the importance of students who have five "theoretical habits" that are: the question of 19459004 evidence ("How do we know what we know?"), From Perspective ("Who is this perspective?") ("How do you relate to this?"), ("How can things be different?") And relevance ("Why is this important?") Kohn writes " the ability to bring up and answer the questions that matter but also the provision. However, any group of intellectual goals, a description of what it means to be deeply and critically thinking, should point to interest or internal motivation to do so the idea is to make it clear, the desire and the tools to make sure that learning never ends … … The IQ History and Purpose
We've always wanted to measure intelligence Ironically, when we look at the first methods that were evaluated in the 1800's, they were not and were very intelligent. Tactics such as investigating people in various forms of torture to show what the threshold of pain is (the longer you can resist the abuse, the more intelligent they feel) or the ability to recognize the high pitch that others did not know to hear
Things have changed … or are they?
Intelligence or IQ can not be talked about without mentioning Alfred Binet, a French psychologist who authorized the IQ test in 1904. the original intention was to develop a study that diagnosed students' learning difficulties in France. Test results were then used to make special programs to help students overcome their educational difficulties.
He never intended to use the intellectual abilities as the absolute standard of intellectual abilities .
According to Binet, intelligence can not be described as a single score. He said that using Intelligence (IQ) as a definite statement of the child's intellectual capacity would be a serious mistake. In addition, Binet feared that IQ measurement would be used to condemn the child to the "constant" state of stupidity, which negatively affects his education and livelihood.
The original interest is the "mental age" – the average level of personal intelligence of the given age. His creation, the Binet-Simon test (originally "scale"), was the archetype for future intelligence tests
. H. Goddard, Research Director at Vineland College, New Jersey, translated Binet's work into English and supported the more general use of the Simon-Binet test. Unlike Binet, Goddard considered intelligence to be a lonely, fixed and well-established unit that could be measured. The Stanford-Binet-Simon Intelligent Scale (Stanford-Binet, Stanford Revision, Stanford-Binet) was a standard intelligence test in the United States in 1916 by Stanford University, Lewis Terman.  It's important to note that the IQ error is that is recorded and can not be changed. The fact that IQ scores know they are fluctuating – both during and during their lifetime. This does not mean that you are becoming more and less intelligent, but it means you have tested more days than others.
Another thing to know about IQ tests: Used for racist purposes, USA Many people who participated in importing and refining these tests thought the IQ was hereditary and responsible for feeding the mistake that it was a "fix" feature.
Many immigrants have been tested in the 1920s and are not IQ tests miserable. As a result, many were refused entry to the United States or were forced to sterilize, fearing that America would be "dumb" and "inferior" infants. If you remember, tests were designed for white middle class Americans. What do you think would be the biggest challenge for them to hand over them?
Lewis Terman developed the original concept of IQ and recommended this scale to classify IQ scores:
000 – 070: Strong Weakness
070 – 079: Boundary Line Failure
080 – 089: Dullness
090 – 109: Normal or average intelligence
110 – 119: Excellent intelligence
115 – 124: above average (eg university students)
125 – 134: Talented (for example postgraduate students)
135 – 144: Very talented (eg intellectuals)
145 – 154: Genius (for example, professors)
155 – 164: Genius (for example, Nobel laureate)
165 – 179: Great genius
180 – 200: The highest genius
200 – Higher ?: Unbeaten Genius
* Genius IQ generally ranges from 140 to 145, accounting for only 25% of the population (out of 400 out of 400).
* Einstein was "only" considered to be 160 IQs. Diane F. Halpern, the psychologist and past president of the American Psychological Association (APA), in his contribution to the Essay wrote that intelligent people are generally intelligent when these results have a good combination in school; (2) high level education; (3) responsible, complex task; (4) some other recognition that it is smart to win prestigious prizes or high pay; (5) ability to read the complex text with good understanding; (6) solves difficult and new problems.
During my research and in the early stages of this article, I have taken up the notion of intelligence in many ways. Some people were long, some were short. Some did not even understand. The most widespread definition is what APA creates: the ability to adapt to the given environment and learn from mistakes.
What is this? Again the word environment. It just seems we can not escape. This gives a deeper meaning to the saying, "When you do in Rome, as the Romans do." That means you have to know what's happening in your environment, and intelligence adjusts to it – and people who are busy – in order to survive and succeed in it.
There are many different forms of intelligence. Mostly, they are created by Dr. Howard Gardner, Professor at Harvard University
Dr. Gardner believes (and I agree) that our schools and culture focus most of the attention on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence. We judge the very articulated or logical peoples of our culture. Dr. Gardner, however, says that we must pay equal attention to those individuals who present presents in other intelligences: artists, architects, musicians, scientists, designers, dancers, therapists, entrepreneurs and others who enrich the world we live in
He felt that the traditional understanding of intelligence beyond the IQ test was far too limited, and in 1983 he created  multiple intelligence theory  to allow a wider range of human potential for children and adults.
These intelligences are as follows:
Language Intelligence ("Intelligent Word")
Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number / reasoning smart")
Spatial Intelligence ("picture smart")
Test-Kinetic Intelligence ("Body Smart")
Music intelligence ("smart music")
Interpersonal Intelligence ("smart people")
Intrapersonal Intelligence ("self-smart")
It was not associated with Dr. Gardner, but they also respected the following:
For the first time, Cattell proposed the concept of liquid and crystallized intelligence, and further developed the theory with John Horn. The theory of Fluid and crystallized intelligence, Cattell-Horn, suggests that intelligence consists of a number of different capabilities that work together and work together to produce total intellectual intelligence.
Cattell defined liquid intelligence as "… a relationship independent of previous specific practices or instructions." Liquid intelligence is an abstract thinking and intelligence as well as solving problems. This ability can be considered independently of learning, experience and education. Examples of using liquid intelligence: solving puzzles and developing problem-solving strategies.
Crystallized Intelligence Learning Past Experience and Learning . Situations requiring crystallized intelligence include reading comprehension and vocabulary exams. This kind of intelligence is based on facts and is rooted in the experience. This kind of intelligence becomes stronger as we grow older and accumulate new knowledge and understanding. Both types of intelligence grow in childhood and adolescence. Liquid intelligence occurs in adolescence and is gradually reduced in the ages of 30 or 40 years. Crystallized intelligence continues to grow in adulthood. [Sikeres intelligencia] Successful Intelligence written by intelligence psychologist and professor Yale, Robert J. Sternberg, who believes that IQ's concept of life is misleading because he believes IQ is a very pitiful predictor the oeuvre.
The theory focuses on three types of intelligence that contribute to its overall success: Analytical Intelligence ; mental steps or components to solve problems; Creative Intelligence : Using experience in a way that promotes insight (creativity / divergent thinking); and Practical Intelligence : the ability to read and adapt to the contexts of everyday life.
Mr. Sternberg writes about his environment: Successful Intelligence : Successfully intelligent people recognize that their environment in which they find themselves are unable or unable to exploit their talents. They are actively looking for an environment where they can not only do a successful job, but also make a difference. They create a chance and do not let the opportunities limit the circumstances in which they find themselves.
As a tutor, I sign up for Mr. Sternberg's Successful Intelligence in Teaching. It was a very powerful tool and way of thinking for college students. Successful intelligence as a context-driven learning curriculum is really motivated by students to see that education increases the inability of their goals and motivates them to develop their expertise. Mr Sternberg believes that the most important factor in acquiring expertise is deliberate commitment. Emotional Intelligence Daniel Goleman's most beloved book in 1995, Emotional Intelligence (Daniel Emmanuel Intelligence), has shown that research has shown that traditional intelligence – IQ – only accounts for 20% of the success of a person's life. For example, IQ and education research show that high IQs account for between 10-25% of the dormitory grades. A százalékarány a sikertől függően változik. Mindazonáltal, Goleman állítása felvetette a kérdést: Mit számít a másik 80% -nak?
Találtad … Emotikus Intelligencia. Pontosan mi az érzelmi intelligencia? Az érzelmi intelligencia (más néven EQ vagy EI) az érzelmek érzékelésére, ellenőrzésére és értékelésére utal. Számos vállalatnak jelenleg kötelező EQ-képzése van a vezetők számára, hogy javítsa az alkalmazottakat
A TACIT KNOWLEDGE aka "STREET SMARTS"
Hallottad azt a kifejezést, hogy "A tapasztalat a legnagyobb tanító …"
A pszichológia körökben a mindennapi tapasztalatokból nyert ismereteket hallgatólagos tudásnak nevezik . A társalgás kifejezés "utcai intelligenciák", ami azt jelenti, hogy a formális, osztálytermi oktatás (aka "könyv intelligensek") semmi köze ehhez. Az egyént nem közvetlenül utasítják arra, hogy mit kell tanulnia, hanem inkább ki kell vonnia a tapasztalatot a tapasztalatból akkor is, ha a tanulás nem az elsődleges cél.
A hallgatólagos tudás szorosan kapcsolódik a közös értelemben, ami hangos és körültekintő ítélet, amely a helyzet vagy a tények egyszerű megítélésén alapszik . Mint tudják, a józan ész nem minden közös.
A hallgatólagos tudás, vagy az abból levont tanulságok úgy tűnik, "gyorsabban és jobban" tapadnak, amikor a tanulságok közvetlenül relevánsak az egyén céljaihoz képest. Knowledge that is based on one's own practical experience will likely be more instrumental to achieving one's goals than will be knowledge that is based on someone else's experience, or that is overly generic and abstract.
BEING BOTH SMART AND STUPID
Yes, it's possible to be both smart and stupid. I'm sure someone you know comes to mind at this precise moment. But the goal here is not to ridicule, but to understand how some seemingly highly intelligent, or highly educated individuals can be so smart in one way, and incredibly stupid in others.
The woman who is a respected, well paid, dynamic executive who consistently chooses men who don't appear to be worthy of her, or the man who appears to be a pillar of the community, with a loving wife and happy kids, ends up being arrested on rape charges.
It happens, but why? I found the answer in Why Smart People Can Be So Stupid. Essentially, intellect is domain specific. In other words, being smart (knowledgeable) in one area of your life, and stupid (ignorant) in another is natural. Turning off one's brain is quite common especially when it comes to what we desire. A shared characteristic among those who are smart and stupid, is the difficulty in delaying gratification.
Olem Ayduk & Walter Mischel who wrote the chapter summarized: Sometimes stupid behavior in smart people may arise from faulty expectations, erroneous beliefs, or merely a lack of motivation to enact control strategies even when one has them. But sometimes it is an inability to regulate one's affective states and the behavioral tendencies associated with them that leads to stupid and self-defeating behavior.
The central character in this book who many of these lessons regarding being smart and stupid revolve around is Bill Clinton and his affair with Monica Lewinksky.
WISDOM & CONCLUSION
My great grandmother, Leola Cecil, maybe had an 8th grade education at the most. By no stretch of the imagination was she highly educated, but she had what seemed like infinite wisdom. She was very observant and could "read" people with startling accuracy. Till the very end of her life she shared her "crystallized intelligence" with whomever was receptive to it.
She died at the age of 94. I often use many of her sayings as a public speaker, but most importantly, I use her philosophies to make sure that I'm being guided spiritually and not just intellectually. Many of us who are lucky enough to have a great grandparent can testify that there is something special about their knowledge. They seem to have life figured out, and a knack for helping those of us who are smart, educated and intelligent see things more clearly when we are too busy thinking.
What they have is what we should all aspire to end up with if we are lucky: wisdom.
Wisdom is the ability to look through a person, when others can only look at them. Wisdom slows down the thinking process and makes it more organic; synchronizing it with intuition. Wisdom helps you make better judgments regarding decisions, and makes you less judgmental. Wisdom is understanding without knowing, and accepting without understanding. Wisdom is recognizing what's important to other people, and knowing that other people are of the utmost importance to you. Wisdom is both a starting point, and a final conclusion.