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Globalization: the impact on teaching in the Philippines and beyond


In the twentieth century, Pre-Century education was once treated as a domestic phenomenon and the institutions of learning were previously treated as local institutions. Prior to the 20th century, education was usually restricted within the borders of a country, exclusively for the consumption of local citizens. Scientists or college students did not have to leave their country of origin to study and acquire the skills they need to get to the paths of their chosen career. In addition, national borders have become impermeable walls in the name of sovereignty. The acquisition of the college qualification and the skills associated with it were aimed solely at the purpose of the nationalist service of their own country of origin. In addition, knowledge of the valleys and oceans surrounding the world map, as well as foreign languages ​​and international political systems are not necessarily necessary. Intercultural exchange was not massive and sophisticated, if not complicated. Acceptance and understanding of cultural diversity was not urgent for anyone, just as it is a temptation to participate in a globally connected world. In other words, before the 20th century, scholastic work was predominantly simple and limited in the local, domestic, near. They were restricted to their own village, their own region, their own country. The student had a neighborhood like the place where he should be born to be trained and later served – the local village, which is his home, community, country.

Nevertheless, the world had a constant flux state. In the 20th century, the phenomenon called globalization rose and became a spokesperson. Whatever concerns the expression of globalization is attributed to modernization or anything that is up to date, if not better. Part of this trend is the adventist and irresistible power of information technology and information boom through the miracles of the internet. The primary indicator of globalization is the idea of ​​cosmopolitanism – the feeling of all mankind, regardless of race, religion, gender, etc. In a so-called global village. In addition, international media and trade and investment are unbridled and transnational. Finally, globalization included the movement of scientists, workers and migrants from one direction to better employment and living conditions.

Globalization seems to be all-rounder, lifelong, and includes education as well. One of the indicators of this is the concept of the emergence of international education. The internationalization of education in The Global Schoolhouse, all of the world's classrooms, one of the great campuses in Europe, you think globally. Local laws and Go West. The world's students were apparently persuaded to get to know the world and to cope with technological advances if it did not become a citizen of the world. In addition, globalization and international education play a role, for example, when speaking of Singapore as the Knowledge of Asia, showing the city state among the world's scientific centers; De La Salle University in Manila, Philippines, which has concluded an agreement and has an external relationship with many universities in the Asian region, such as Japan's Waseda University and Taiwan's Soochow University Partnership and Support; the establishment of university and satellite universities in the United States and Australia, such as the University of Chicago and New South Wales University in Singapore; online school programs have been offered by a housewife who is willing to learn to learn, despite having maternal duties; semester students or foreign study programs; and finally non-traditional speakers such as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean learn English – the lingua franca of the modern academic and business world – strive to learn the language in order to have English-language universities and jobs. Obviously, each one of them promotes international education, convincing its prospective consumers that today's huge strength is to encourage self-investment, leave their home, fly to another country, and introduce internationally relevant courses. Indeed, globalization and international education all encouraged students to become better acquainted with their world and to be more involved with it.

Boston College International Senior Education Director and International Educational Expert Philip Altbach, "Perspectives on International Higher Education", that the elements of globalization are widespread and diverse in higher education. Clear indicators of globalization trends in tertiary education that have cross-border implications are:

1. The flow of cross-border students;

2. Landscapes in foreign and offshore universities, especially in developing and middle-income countries;

3. American colleges and universities are extremely popular with programs for international perspectives and intercultural knowledge;

4. Bulk higher education;

5. Global market for students, faculties and highly qualified staff; and

6. Global Attitude of New "Internet-Based" Technologies

In addition, the European Central Bank Association, S. Caspersen, advocated that internationalization affects the following areas: Curriculum, language teaching, foreign studies and training, foreign students, foreign staff and guest teachers, foreign language teaching materials and international Ph.D. students. Nevertheless, the goal of globalization is to have a culture of "all-in-one" that would facilitate international transactions, it did not seem to apply to all nations of the world. Joseph Stiglitz Nobel laureate economist, the effects of globalization are dualistic. Globalization itself is neither good nor bad. You can do great things. But in most of the world, globalization has not yielded similar benefits. For many, it seems to be closer to a disturbed disaster. Andrew Green's 2007 book, "Education and Development in a Global Age: Strategies for Successful Globalization," claimed that the optimists in East Asian tigers – Japan, China and South Korea – are mentioned as the success stories of globalization. But these are only a small part of the world's two hundred nations. In the Philippines, with regard to international education, it can be seen that universities are involved in the mission and vision of selling graduates to globally competitive professionals. In addition, the Philippine universities have become international, including the recruitment of foreign scientists and students and cooperation with overseas universities. Intensive English education, as language is the teaching medium apart from the prevailing Filipino folk language. Finally, in the early 21st century, higher education in the Philippines confirmed the offering of nursing and IT courses, as foreigners demanded for graduates.

Student mobility, although international studies, such as foreign studies in the United States, seem to be most impressive in Philippine, and if not better, the idea of ​​practicality for most students is overweight. Foreign studies are not popular with the current generation of students. The typical outlook is that it is not advisable to study overseas obviously the costs – tuition fees, accommodation costs, accommodations and airfare. Though financial support may be available, there are very limited resources. There are a number of universities that can offer merit or academic scholarships, talent scholarships, athletic scholarships, teaching assistants, research assistants, full or partial tuition fees, but there is really no student money. It is obvious that international education is a global issue, a global commodity and, above all, a privilege – and therefore not all. Therefore learning in America is a mere opportunity for those who can afford to cover foreign study costs.

The Philippines is a third world country that is heavily influenced by developed nations such as the United States. Globalization may have a positive impact in some ways, but its enormous impact was at the expense of the Filipinos. Globalization not only affected the education system of the country but also beyond – economically and socially. These include brain drain, declining quality in education through profit, labor surplus, overseas workers' vulnerability and declining family values.

For some, the Philippines is a migrant worker country. This phenomenon is sent abroad to send colleagues abroad (also known as overseas Filipino workers or OFWs) abroad and domestic money delivery has been heightened by globalization. The brain drain – or the emigration of gifted and skilled nationals of a country that is generally more developed nations for better employment and living conditions – is a problem that has been strengthened by globalization. The foreign policy of labor market diplomacy in the Philippines began in the 1970s when rising oil prices in the Middle East were boosted by contracted immigrant labor. From the mid-sixties until the mid-1980s, the dictator government of Ferdinand Marcos had the opportunity to export unemployed young people in a stagnant economy and to create a system that regulates and encourages labor outflow. This scenario prompted Filipinos to study nursing courses that would better ensure overseas employment than they did in their home country. For more than 25 years, temporary work has been posted abroad, such as nurses, engineers, IT specialists, caregivers, entertainers, home helpers, factory workers, construction workers and seafarers. However, the Philippine economy benefited from money transfers sent by OFW. In the last quarter of 2010, the Philippines's economy received roughly $ 18.76 billion in profits from OFWs operating in the United States, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, Japan, the UAE, Singapore, Italy, Germany and Norway. [19659002Másodszorafülöp-szigetekiszakemberektengerentúlifoglalkoztatásirántikeresletebefolyásoltaahelyioktatásirendszerminõségétrepülõéjszakainemmegfelelõiskolákformájábanamelyekcsaknyerésretörekedtekEgyfilozófiaitörvényhozóEdgardoAngaraegyszerelőszöraggodalmátfejeztekisokolyaniskolaelterjedésemiattamelyekakülföldiországokbankövetelttanfolyamokatésacsökkenőminőségioktatástkínáljákAngaramegjegyeztehogyaFülöp-szigeteknektúlnagyazigényeazoktatásnakésaminőségioktatásnakPéldáulmindenötkilométerreebbenazországbanvanegyápolóiskolaegyszámítógépesiskolaegyápolóiskolaésegykozmetikaiiskolaAngaraaztjavasoltahogyatörvényhozóknakésazoktatóknakörömmelkelltalálniukaminőségioktatásra[19659002] Third, the surplus labor of another serious effect of globalization. In 2008, the phenomenon of brain drain began to decline in the Philippines. This period was when the United States began a financial crisis that affected countries that were dependent on the world's economy and had become contagious. In the Philippines it was assumed that demand for nurses had stopped because they needed them. For example, the US decided to employ local workers instead of outsourcing foreign nurses to reduce the local problem of rising unemployment. As a result, this case dragged away the majority of Filipino college students. And the unfortunate result is the labor surplus of nursing graduates. This dilemma caused by a third world country, such as the Philippines, trying to cope with globalization with labor outflow has left the Filipinos desperately. More than 287,000 nursing graduates are currently either unemployed or in off-shore jobs. Nursing graduates nowadays are better off from working conditions, in professions that differ from their field of expertise, such as call centers, serving as English teachers if they do not remain unemployed because Filipino hospitals have hardly any vacancies, a large number of nursing graduates. In addition, these specialists are accepted by hospitals and clinics as volunteers, with little or no cash benefits or as trainees charged with the policy of hospitals for violent training

. Fourth, the dilemma of globalization in the Philippines is the vulnerability of overseas workers. For example, in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates and Taiwan, there was no choice but to dismiss and repatriate Filipino guest workers in the light of the global financial crisis. Moreover, today in the Philippines there is a concern about the Saudi threat. At present, about 1.4 million OFW in Saudi Arabia lose their jobs because the Arab nation is implementing a Saudi program that gives Arab citizens priority for employment. To date, more than 1.5 million OFWs in Saudi Arabia have the highest concentration of OFWs. This is the largest tenant of Philippine workers and the largest Filipino population in the Middle East. As Saudi Arabia hosts the majority of OFWs, the problem for Finnish workers to lose their jobs and return home where employment opportunities are scarce is a national threat. In addition, current national insecurity in countries such as Syria and Libya threatened the lives of the OFWs who still decided to stay abroad for economic reasons, which find greater weight in their security.

Finally, globalization has resulted in social costs that are a challenge for Filipino families. Philippine families with close family ties sacrifice and release significant funds to support their families. The Filipino parents have the belief that education will give their children a promising future and a decent way of life. Thus, given that limited opportunities for employment in the Philippines are unable to support the needs of the family, one or both parents work outside the country. As a result, Filipino children – albeit with their educational goals and prosperity – are left with one or both parents. They then have to deal with an extended family member, such as aunt, uncles, or grandparents who need to take care of them. This deprived the child of a child from parenting and guidance because they were separated from their primary family member.

In fact, despite the fact that Filipino families experienced the monetary benefits of a family member who had been deprived of a family member from overseas, this trend did not enjoy the majority of Filipinos. The poorest of the poor can not afford to leave and work overseas. In addition, with the fluctuating market forces, the value of the US dollar used by OFW as a cashier's payroll, the rise in gas prices and tolls, and the continued growth in Philippine cost of living, globalization generally excluded long-term economic growth for the country masses suffer a lot. In addition, the technological know-how relevant to human capital and growth in the Philippines suffered from globalization, as it lost its experts to developed countries, which in turn had "brain gains".

Indeed, globalization is both positive and negative, but in the case of the Philippines it is rather negative. It is reasonable to say that globalization is "an uneven process" and that the least-developed countries have not grown significantly in the light of globalization. Most prosperous are the rich and powerful countries of the West and East Asia.

The Philippines was once considered the "knowledge capital" in Asia, especially in the 1960s and 1970s. The higher education system was characterized by a high standard comparable to neighboring countries, much lower tuition and the rule of English as an educational tool. The Philippines was therefore able to conquer the students from neighboring nations, such as the Chinese, the Thai and the Koreans. However, this once-optimistic picture has now become sad because of many problems that have long been faced with the system such as poor budget management, poor quality and unemployment, which seriously affects consumers and the end product – Filipino students. The situation is worse by globalization, which has the impact of university colleges on the Philippines and leads them to work overseas, because they have more advantages than the disadvantage of their family's home leaving home. Now that the world is in financial turmoil, Filipino workers will have to cope with such serious effects of globalization.

It seems the Philippines is stagnant, as opposed to increasing equality, with rapid economic growth, integration is a widespread distribution of global markets and social development in less developed countries. Unfortunately, these fruits of globalization did not suffer much from the Philippines. Therefore, while overseas employment is a legitimate option for local workers, it is time for the Philippine Government to encourage dormitories and universities to provide programs that are relevant to this major agricultural country, such as agriculture-related courses, significant plays a role in the development of the Philippine economy. The population recovery in the country, which is generally accounted for by the country's suffering as the growing number of Filipinos, is indirectly proportional to the available employment opportunities, and must use the incentive for people to develop employment and develop rural areas. Rich Philippine families with large conglomerates should also be involved in creating employment opportunities and promoting decent working conditions in order to mitigate the sad trend in labor migration. In addition, the Philippine government needs to strengthen the welfare of its citizens more than anything else, rather than applying the policies of the Philippine government to the powerful Western countries, such as the United States. (Sheena Ricarte, August 31, 2011)

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