The Islamic View Towards the Philosophy of Education
Philosophy is a study of reality, knowledge of wisdom, and a commentary on the general principles of life. It deals with the search for vicious truth, both conceptual and practical. Five areas of research – epistemology, metaphysics, aesthetics, ethics and history. The device used by philosophy to reveal reality or to discover truth is logical, both inductive and deductive. Education philosophy reinforces epistemology as a branch of general philosophy. It defines the purpose and content and content of education, which in turn influences the entire learning environment, society and future generations.
The philosophy of education is psychology, sociology, politics, economics, history, science and religion. Education is a dual phenomenon; static and dynamic. The most important part is dynamic or temporary, and adjusts with the change and growth of knowledge, social structure and civilization, while the small but important part is static or eternal. We have suggested that the content of education is eternal, while the use and explanation of these content is largely dynamic. We have developed a multidisciplinary approach to educational content. The analysis involves the needs of individuals, society and time, and includes the cultural, social and professional purpose of education.
Education can be both formal and informal. Formal education is provided in schools or colleges or universities and on the other hand, it absorbs informal education from society and the environment. Education is formal and informal, personalized and internalized, through thinking and experience. This means that we all are students during our lifetime. However, we analyze the philosophy of formal education (goals and goals). In addition, education has three levels: primary, secondary and higher. Primary education covers children aged 3 to 11, secondary education includes teenagers 12 to 18 years of age, and higher education forms young people over 18 years of age. A distinctive approach is needed at all levels of education.
The content of education extends from community to community. A secular society would have a different approach to content than to a particular ideological society. In addition, explanation or implementation of content would be different in different societies. Our analysis is based on Islamic views ideologically and predominantly.
The term "education" comes from the Latin word "Educare, Educatum" or "Educere". Educatum and education are training and nutrition, while educators mean that they have to lead. The former means that education is something external; which is to be introduced or introduced from outside, this means that the external environment plays a decisive role in the learning process. The latter indicates growth from the inside; this means that the individual's inner potential is decisive in the learning process, and the external environment has a secondary role in the educational process. Naturalists / psychologists placed greater emphasis on the internal organization of learning processes, while social philosophers placed great emphasis on the external needs of the educational process. The role and importance of the internal and external learning environment is assumed in a mixed and balanced approach.
Aristotle described education as a process necessary to create a loud body in a solid body. The purpose and purpose of education is to create good and virtuous citizens. Ibne Khaldun, in the fourteenth century, expresses the view that education consists of intellectual, social and moral training that creates concealed potentials, builds character character, and passes people's culture to future generations. In the twentieth century, Dewey defined the education as follows: "Education continues through the ongoing reconstruction of experiences, developing the abilities of an individual that enable him to control his surroundings and fulfill his or her abilities". Education can be defined as education is the average through which adults pass on children and pass on their knowledge, patterns of thinking and behavior, and develop their genetic potential to address existing and future challenges.
Goals and Goals – Islamic View  Islam is a Divine Religion. This is based on the revealed book, Koran, and prophetic commentary, hadith. The ultimate responsibility and ultimate goal of prophets and revealed books is to educate humanity in a better, happy and purposeful life. They define the purpose of life, outline the current implementation process and present a practical example of purposeful life. Thus, the purpose or objectives of education, as well as the content of education, can be understood from the most recent book in Al-Qur'an. Let us quote the verses of Al-Quran: " There is no doubt that Allah has given great favor to the Muslims when he called an apostle to one another who worships the statements of Allah and teaches them Scripture and Wisdom while they were obvious errors before. (Al-Qur'an)
The poem identifies the purpose and purpose of education. These are:
- Faith Plantation
- Knowledge Enhancement
- Wisdom Enhancement
- Capital Development
- Science : – Natural sciences deal with the universe's inanimate objects. The most important branches are physics, chemistry and astronomy. Biological Sciences : – Biological sciences in the universe are dealing with vibrant objects. The most important branches are zoology, botany and psychology.
- – Social sciences deal with relationships between collective life and individuals and society. The most important branches are sociology, political science and economics.
- : – Professional sciences deal with individuals' professions that are necessary for human survival and quality of life. The most important branches are medicine, engineering and trade.
- Procedural Knowledge : – There are known procedures and sequences. It points out and explains the process and sequences of any information or data that is compiled, that is, the HOW & WHEN questions. For example, how to manufacture or use your computer when your computer is ready for use or sale.
- Conceptual Knowledge : – Knowledge of the concepts behind declarative and procedural knowledge. The abstract aspect of knowledge. In conceptual knowledge, we also discuss the relationship between concepts. It deals with WHY types of issues. For example, mathematical concepts and their relationship to each other, which are the basis for the operation of computer hardware or software.
- We strive to develop our Individuals with Humanity, Independence with Interdependence and Science of Technology.
- We strive to develop among our students the Wisdom of Patriotism, Faith and Knowledge. ]
The word of faith has different meanings and uses, but the central meaning is similar to "conviction", "faith," "trust," or "trust," but Contrary to these terms, "faith" can mean a subordinate and transpersonal relationship with God or someone with higher powers. Faith is based on certain convictions; the indispensability of beliefs, like faith, is the inevitability of seeds for plants. The belief system contains some perceptual components with practical implications. Living faith must fulfill two conditions, the necessary condition is logical reasoning, and sufficient status is the church for believers and humanity. Living faith provides stability to the believer, creates dynamism in his personality, brings fruit to life, promotes cohesion between believers, and assigns a special figure to a group with special features.
We mention several verses of the Apostles in the Qur'an to illustrate and explain the basic elements of Islamic faith.
"This is a glorious book that has no doubt about it, but the guidance of the Lord to the knowledge of God who fears Allah who believe in the invisible and compassionate of our prayer and spend in our Way we have given them and those who believe in what is sent to you (O Apostle) and that which is sent before you, the Day of Judgment in August, they are the ones who are rightly guided, and indeed are successful in both worlds. "(Quran)
the Qur'an eliminates the element of doubt, which is the most important requirement of modern philosophy, by introducing faith as an essential element of reality. Doubt is a negative factor that hinders accurate understanding of reality; Curiosity is much more alternative to the development of knowledge or the reality of exploration. Faith simultaneously assumes certain binding beliefs – the unity of God, the invisible system (angels, heavens, hell, etc.), invented books, prophets, judgment day, destiny and life after death. It also imposes certain obligations on believers – Kalimah (religion), prayer, fasting, almsgiving, and pilgrimage. It is worth noting that the idea of unity of God must create the faith of unity of mankind.
The Islamic approach to faith is that reverent personalities, that is, the prophets are revealed, explained and widespread; a belief based on personal thinking is not acceptable in Islam, and the ultimate system of prophecies for believing in the faith is indispensable. In addition, the loving and confidential posture to the prophets is essential to full faith, without the faith being incomplete or objectionable. The basis of faith is therefore love and acceptance for the loving person or the prophet. Simply, faith can be defined as accepting something that somebody believed to be trustworthy / praiseworthy.
Behind the development of faith, the goal is to balance and balance the psycho-spiritual development of the human person. Prophets are given a practical role as a modal, and the revealed books serve as a permanent guide. The ultimate goal of developing belief elements is to equip the individual with appropriate tools to handle and treat the conceptual or practical issues of life, whether large or small, simple or complex, independent or interconnected, with some or many people, strength. Thus, decision is a necessary outcome of faith, no determination, no faith.
Islam has strongly expressed the two aspects of faith: human and transcendental. Human aspects suggest the concept of humanity's unity, while transcendental aspects suggest the idea of unity of God. Faith is not complete if one aspect is ignored or is not firmly defined. Moreover, because of the ignorance of one aspect, the human person is obscure and unstable. The consequences of bad faith in the unity of humanity and the unity of God are multifaceted and penetrate all aspects of human society. This can lead to nations with some sort of continuous struggle and martial attitude towards each other. In addition, the effects of bad faith outweigh the prospects of current generations and disturb the peace and tranquility of future generations. KNOWLEDGE
Understanding the factual / declarative, procedural and conceptual aspects that a person acquires through education, observation and experience. Acquiring knowledge is a basic necessity of human nature. It plays an important role in the growth and development of a person or nation.  And remember when the Lord told the angels: "I will appoint a vice-president on earth." They said, "You will stand by the on earth, are like death and bloodshed, while we celebrate your praise and glorify you. "Allah said," Surely I know what you do not know. "And Allah taught Adam all the names and then ordered them to the angels saying" Say give me the names of these if we are indeed true! " They said," Glory to you, we have no knowledge of what you taught us. You alone are All-Knowing, All-Wise. " [Allah] said," Oh, Adam! Tell them the names of these things. "Then Adam said the angels to these things, Allah said," Did I not tell you that I know well all the hidden secrets of heaven and earth, and I know and what you hide?
The poems make it obvious that human nature is naturally matched and capable of receiving and absorbing Divine Knowledge. In addition, Adam's knowledge is able to formulate things in nature. Third, man is able to develop the language because Adam named the names of the elements as a prior formal training. These poems also show that the first man of the earth was completely replaced by scientific knowledge, as a monopoly, to work for natural conquest. According to the Qur'an, as a human activity program, it is necessary to keep in the hands of divine cooperation and blessing before the plan is unilaterally executed in which God has no vice president. Poems also indicate that one has the free will to choose a right or wrong way of life. There is no external constraint in free choice. The poems also indicate that mankind has a strong tendency towards injustice and strife but can be treated with human knowledge and prevent God's will. Types of Knowledge: – Knowledge is divided into the following groups:
Islam accepts the scientific classifications of science, but suggested the wisdom of humanity's wisdom: –
First, the Absolute Poems are Dubious Knowledge.
Absolute knowledge is based on certain scientific facts or through some respectable personality (ie through prophets) in the form of the Revealed Book (for example, the Koran). Misleading knowledge is based on subjective analysis (eg Freud's psychoanalysis theory). Secondly, fruitful poems are fruitless knowledge. Fruitful knowledge serves the benefit of mankind (eg science, biology, social sciences, and professional sciences), while vain knowledge is not useful for humanity (eg, occult sciences) .  The aspects of knowledge: –  Peace in knowledge is divided into three categories or three aspects: declarative, procedural and conceptual.
: – Knowledge is about something such as the structure of the body, the structure of the computer, the shape of the earth, and some of the speech. This deals with WHAT issues.
Knowledge enables us to understand the realities of things (eg the Divine Order of Creation, the Natural Growth System, natural forces, and history), and wisdom enables us to to utilize reality for ourselves and others. According to Islam, wisdom comes at a higher level of attribute, after knowledge. They donate wisdom when the will of a man is replaced by the will of God, and the human understanding is fully exploited, so wisdom is based on knowledge and understanding. Let's say a verse to make it clear:
"He gives wisdom with whom he wills and who receives wisdom, he is truly generous and does not accept a warning except for the man of understanding." [Al-Qur'an]
Islam has suggested two diagonal oppositions of wisdom-divine wisdom and the wisdom of the devil. Divine wisdom is based on good faith and fruitful knowledge and brings good results to mankind, both financially and mentally, while the wisdom of the devil is based on false beliefs and vain knowledge and leads mankind only to secular or material benefits, totally ignored leaving the benefits of others and the spiritual benefits. The wisdom of the devil cares for the expense of others, but the devil / secular wisdom is short-lived and weak, and ultimately can not carry out misleading plans.
The Character of the Wise Person
Wisdom is personalized, grounded and manifested through the struggle. A person who is fully involved in life could have wisdom. Isolation or loneliness is very negative in wisdom, while participation is the basis of wisdom. Achieving the wise man's goals / answering the problems of life with certain characteristics. These attributes are the basic tools of a wise individual, whose edges are not wisely given. The prominent features of a wise person are: effective communication, enthusiasm, discipline or rigor, decision-making ability, sense of responsibility, moderate behavior, self-confidence or high morale or courage and appropriate appearance
D. BEST MANNERS
Humanity is countless, structurally and versatile, practically. However, the essence of good manners is permanent, humble for everyone. Humility is the unique positive attribute of human personality; this is the essence of each attribute and all positive attributes. Lack of humility puts all kinds of existence into a soul-less ritual that can not produce fruitful results for myself and others. The proud man behaves badly and causes problems for himself and others.
Models have two aspects: inner and outer. Inside, behavior is shaped by the dynamic organization of all perceptions, intentions and emotions of the individual, and the behavior that comes from the organization of these aspects while outward; the social acceptance of behavior develops. It is simply the best actor to consider rationally defined and morally-based interactive standards. Models are developed under the guidance of intelligence, knowledge, wisdom, social norms, and religion. Occasionally recognized phenomena. Reasonably / indubitably established behavioral habits create order, consistency and continuity in life, and provide a beautiful appearance to individuals or society. Models provide longevity for the forerunners of culture and civilizations. The society of malicious people will not be able to survive, at least in respect and recognition.
Basics of Best Models
Man is a combination of three basic realities, that is, body, mind, and soul. The body has certain physical needs to survive or to pursue life such as food, water and sleep, the mind has a certain instinct for an interactive life, such as parental instinct, charming instinct, learning instinct, and sex instinct . moral excellence. The physical needs of the body are met by the physical powers, the spiritual instincts with the power of the mind as the willpower, the decision-making ability and emotional power, the spiritual urges are reassured by the spiritual powers such as insight and intuition. The long-lasting manifestation of countless human efforts to meet the body's needs, psychological instincts and the soul stimulate the forms of human personality. In addition, physical balance or health depends on diet, leisure, adequate sleep, and constructive physical activity. The normal or spiritual tranquility of the mind is linked to a positive approach to intentions, perceptions and emotions. The soul is satisfied with the rationally-intuitively defined belief system. A balanced approach to physical health, mental satisfaction and mental satisfaction creates a formal personality. In addition, group interactions, such as social relationships, economic relationships, political relationships, and regular relationships, form and improve formal life.
The abovementioned elaboration of the content of education – belief, knowledge, wisdom, personality or behavior – shows that educational institutions need a comprehensive approach to learning. They provide HITEKRE, KNOWLEDGE, WISDOM and develop PERSONALITY / MANNERS to face the present and future challenges of life. Every aspect has its own importance and indispensability, no other is burdened, and everything is needed. It is worth noting that only a content-based education system can produce fruits for society, next generations, and people concerned. Based on the whole analysis, we recommend the educational statement of two samples.