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Atomic History Theory


Anything that is bulk and occupy space is what counts. For example, stone, wood and concrete material. Things like sound and wave do not count. The atomic theory of matter was reported to consist of fine discrete particles. These fine particles are discrete and separate. These fine particles may be atoms, molecules or ions.

The atom is the smallest neutral particles in one element. A neutral particle is a particle that has a positive or negative charge without any charge. The element is a pure material that contains only one type of atom. It can not be divided into simpler materials. For example, the 100% pure iron block contains only iron core.

The compound is prepared by chemical reaction by combining two or more elements or combinations thereof. A chemical bond must be formed between the compounds. If the elements are not bonded, they are just a mixture. The molecule is a neutral particle that is formed by chemical association or by combining two or more atoms or similar or different types of atoms.

A chlorine molecule with the same type of atom; while the methane molecule contains another type of atom. Two of my chlorine binds together; while the carbon in methane forms four bonds with four hydrogen atoms.
The ion contains a particle positive or negative charge. It is then generated after electrons in an atom or molecule have been transferred to another destination or from another destination to the atom or molecule. Due to the transfer of electrons within the atoms and molecules, the atom and the molecule can be an imbalance charge position. If the atom and the molecule exceed the electron, they are negatively charged. Otherwise, if they are in an electron defect, they become positive. Anion is the expression of a negatively charged atom or molecule; while cation is a positive charge atom and molecule expression. Examples of the cation: Examples of Mg2 +, Ca2 +, Na +, Fe3 + and anions: SO42-, NO3-, PO43-, Cl-

The material consists of fine particles that are always randomly moving. The evidence supporting the kinetic theory of matter is the diffusion process. The experiment serves to estimate the particle size of olive oil.

A. Determination of the Droplet Oil
Fifty drops of olive oil are dripped into the beaker from the burette. The fifty drops of oil can be obtained from the burette, reducing the final volume to the initial volume of the burette. A drop of olive oil can be obtained by dividing fifty drops of olive oil by fifty. Calculation of the volume for a drop of olive oil is as follows:

Initial volume before drop of 50 drops of oil = x cm3

50 dots of oil: (yx) cm3

Volume of a drop of oil = (yx) / 50 cm3

B. Determination of the number of drops of oil from the burette
A drop of oil that drips from the burette is too large to drip on the surface of the water with a thin layer of lycopodium capsules on it. Therefore, oil from the burette should be separated again from a small amount of oil. The amount of oil that can be separated from the large droplet oil (the burette) can be determined by passing the oil from the watch glass to the filter paper by means of a sharp pointed bar. Attach a small drop of oil to the sharp tip and transfer it to the filter paper. Filter paper is a high oil absorption material. In this way, it absorbs the most oil that adheres to the sharp pointed glass rod. From the small droplet oil transferred to the filter paper, the small droplet volume can be calculated by dividing the amount of large droplet oil from the burette to the transfer rate. The calculation is as follows:

The bulk of the droplet oil drained from the burette was determined in (A) (yx) / 50 cm3.

Volume of small oil drops that stick to the tip of the glass rod = the amount of large droplet of hourglass divides the number of delivery times. The calculation equation is as follows:

The small oil drop volume associated with the sharp tip of the glass rod =

(yx) / 50n

where n = the transmission times the small droplet oil from the watch glass to the filter paper.

C. Determining the surface of the oil spot on the surface of the water
If a small drop of oil that adheres to the tip of the glass rod is dripped on the surface of the water, thin layers of lycopodium powder are applied, the oil lycopodium powder is pushed to the edge of the tray. The diameter of the forming spot can be measured by a ruler. This value can be used to calculate the area of ​​the oil stain. The calculation is as follows:

The diameter of the oil point is d cm.
Surface area of ​​oil spill on surface water = circle cross section = j2 =  (d / 2) 2 cm2

D. Particle size estimation
The size of the olive oil particle is calculated as follows:

The thickness of the oil layer is t cm.
Volume of cylinder in cylinder =  (d / 2) 2 t cm3
The volume of the oil spot on the surface of the water is equal to the volume of small oil mass that is shifted from the watch glass. Therefore, [1/19659002] => (4) t = V

=> t = (4V / a on the water surface only one layer of particles, so
The size of the oil particles, t = (4V / d2) cm
The generally obtained value is 10-7 cm This indicates that the oil particle size is very small

In addition to the precautionary steps, [i] The water in the tray must be stable before the lycopodium powder is dispersed

(ii) The layer of lycopodium powder on the water surface should be as thin and equilibrated as possible. tray and water contained therein are free of all oil spills and dirt that affect the oil spill balance

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