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A preview of theology in Africa


Before the turn of the twentieth century, many commentators said that Christianity is growing rapidly in Africa, as opposed to other parts of the world. This comment is likely to result; with catastrophic consequences for the spread of the gospel. Yemi Ladipo1 observed, however, that this reputation is not what African Christian thinkers always enjoy for the following reasons:. This world-famous reputation makes the African Church feel complacent. (2) The phenomenal growth of the African Church is often used as a valid cause due to its continuing dependence on foreign funds and staff. (3). The world for the African church was a fat baby, growing in everyday life, but never growing up. [256] It should be said that the above reasoning has long been a feature of African Christianity. The main reason for this was that African theologians were not able to create the creative methods of biblical theology in an appropriate way in Africa. In contrast, I have argued that I have devised a guide to the Biblical theology in Africa.

This presentation is divided into four main series. (1) Preview of Theology in Africa. (2) African Theological Resources. (3) Theological Trends in Africa. (4) Study of Biblical Theology in Africa

To approach the approaching task of overcoming the practice of African biblical theology, it must contribute to the theological preview in order to determine a rational definition and the definition of the theology area

. Definition of Theology

In today's situation, the term "theology" is technically older than Christianity. Before Christianity had been created, great Greek poets like Homer and Hesiod talked about stories of gods to "Theology." 2 After these poets, stoic writers talked about mystical theology, and Aristotle was thinking of theological philosophy during rhetorical dialogue

Alister E. M gGrath makes theology definable reading and says that the word "theology" can easily be divided into two Greek words: theos (God) and logos (word) .3 From this etymology theology is a God or Gods discourse, so it can be seen from above that this definition is too general and therefore too problematic and can not refer to a particular religious tradition, and Christianity is in a polytheistic world, many gods are common, McGrath also noted that due to the above problem, the earliest Christian writers most of the download of the Christian

worships God from other gods in the religious market. The teaching of the Trinity was partly to have responded in part to the response to pressure given to Christ by the Christian theologians.4

Another problem related to the concept of theology in the sense is that it is wrong to describe (and not even understand) infallible God. Professor John Parrat 5 underlined this misconception that conservative scholars have always insisted that theology is a systematic description of God, as indeed his true nature has revealed in his word. However, as Parratt says, we do not want to minimize revelation as an important activity of God. We believe that theology is not so much a logical description of God but an endless attempt of man to describe God as revealed in natural and special revelation.

Over the last centuries, the notion of theology has gone beyond the systematic analysis, objectives, and activities of nature. This was necessary for the development of the twentieth and thirteenth-century Paris Universities. Under the influence of the Paris writers, such as Peter Abelard and Gilbert dela Porree, the Latin word "theology" was the "discipline of sacred learning", which includes all of Christian teaching, not merely the teachings of God.

In this article I have limited the term theology to "Christian theology". Therefore, Christian theology refers to the series of studies that undertake to regularly organize the teachings of the Christian religion. This includes an honest exposition of the most important doctrines of Christianity.7 It needs a systematic understanding of the faith of the Church of Africa to be able to establish a proper moral and practical expression in the African context.

B. Church Forms of Traditional Christian Theology

From the time of early church fathers, the church has always sought statements that contain the depiction of the faith it confesses. These statements were made in response to the rapid development of heresy, which questioned and threatened the existence of Christian faith. The first such claims to enter Christian theology were the Atonement of the Apostles. This was established around the third century, relying on pagan scientists on the teachers of the Trinity. Bruce Milne acknowledges the idea that these summaries of Christian truths produced in the early centuries, which claim the essence of faith during the theological uprising, adds:

The Apostles' Creed is the oldest and best known, and therefore the authority's authority is strong. Certainly, a useful series has been drawn up on which the exposures of Christian faith must be suspended, but this can not serve as the ultimate source and standard of Christian truth.

First, it's too general. He is valuable in verifying extremist views but does not provide sufficient statements about the principles under consideration. Secondly, his authority needs some earlier and more primitive teaching of Jesus Christ and his Apostles.8

During the Reformation and the postformation period, religious congregations are also observable. The 39 articles of 1571 and the 1647 Westminster confessions were of outstanding importance. These statements were much more complete than their creeds, but they did not even appear to the final authorities in the following: First, the universal temple, and therefore contains elements that can not guide the support of other branches. They are also secondary statements. A thoughtful look shows that they consciously justify their claims against biblical teaching.

A critical analysis of the creeds of the third centenary and the XVI-XVII. The contradictions surrounding the religious statements of the century have led to the formation of various forms which the Church perceives as theology. Osadolor Imasogie10 gives three models with which the church has looked at theology. (I) Orthodox Theological Model:

This model ignores the reality of the new interpretation of human being in the interpretation and application of the scripture. In this sense, the orthodox theologian is a firm commitment to the perennial truths of traditional Christianity.11 This allows the theologian to find similar analogies to these beliefs; use these analogies to systematically understand the interconnection of the major secrets of faith and try to link this analogous understanding to the final end of man. (ii) Liberal Theological Model:

Contrary to orthodox theologians, a liberalist theologian makes the demands of modern human beings for a new self-understanding. It is a fact that he takes too seriously and therefore, without reservation, manages the values ​​of modern man and the stipulation that there is no meaningful statement beyond the empirical-rational examination. At the same time, the liberal theologian remains committed to the fundamental Christian truths and admits them to the modern man. Revisionist Theological Model:

The revisionist theologian assumes a transcendental way of thinking, a viable comprehensive thinking, which can be the medium through which the common experience and fundamental religious dimension of man is analyzed in the light of God's revelation. The revisionist takes care of the human being, but critically examines them.

C. The philosophy of African religion

It is very difficult to formulate a philosophy of a religious group that has not created a culture of culture in which tradition remains. The traditional religion in Africa is apparently listed because it does not have any literature that scientists can easily refer to in their attempt to create an African religious philosophy. In Ralph A. Hustin's remarks, in co-operation with African scholars, he reasoned that Africans have the functional equivalent of written historical records in their highly developed oral traditions. He also noted that African communities often resorted to a wide range of events of public interest for various musicians using various poetic and musical instruments to formulate their past accounts.12

From the foregoing, Philosophies of African Traditional Religions to the Supreme Spirit, the Spirits and describes the concepts of his ancestors. [i] The Supreme Being:

Professor Harry Sawyer begins his explicit work, "God: He is His Creator" that most African religious forms of thought originate from the African animist; He believes that inanimate objects, like trees and stones, each have their own spirit that they worship. "As Sawyer later indicated the text, the Supreme Being did not leave without witness as the Africans were aware of its existence and therefore sought for the four most important stages of life, namely birth, initiation, marriage, and death.The African knowledge of God in proverbs, short stories, songs, prayers, names, myths, stories, and religious ceremonies, all of which are easy to remember and pass on to other people because there are no holy scriptures in traditional societies.14 Africans also perceive the Supreme Being as all things – he is eternal, it is a self-sustaining and all-knowing person who can not be directly approached.For the Africans, therefore, to approach, they have to go through the many deities and spirits in the spiritual realm.In the center of African ontology, the concept consists of man being centered existent existence – anthropocentric. Everything in society is revolving around people. Man is born in a community where he is expected to be integrated. He's part of the community where he has to be ready to possess his possessions, definitely. It is expected that in such a community such a person will have to return all forms of individualism to kinship. John Mbiti says:

The deep meaning of kinship with everything means that it is one of the most powerful forces of traditional life. In such a situation, the individual just says, "I am because we are, and because we are so." In a traditional life, an individual does not and can not exist alone, except the company. He is only a part of the whole.15

(iii) His ancestors:

Their ancestors form another strategic concept in the philosophy of African religion. Richard J. Gehman notes that the vast majority of known spirits from many African peoples are the ancient spirit, that is, the spirit of the dead, that they are the last dead (living dead) or the dead (ghosts).

Kofi Asare Opoku noted that the reality of their existence is one of the most important features of traditional religions in West Africa. They always respect and appreciate it. In fact, since God, who in all respects represents the last power that is outstanding in all respects, is the ancestor of significance. All other spiritual beings can occasionally be forgiven or even ridiculed, but God and his ancestors are always fearful. In addition, ancestors are thought to show their power, the blessing of children and crops through the well-being or misfortune of their families. They often associate with God in prayer and approach as bosses, so they say that prayer is rising faster by God's ancestors and other gods / ghosts of similar effect.17

In summary, this article is that theology (limited to Christian theology ) refers to the series of studies which undertake to systematically organize the teachings of Christianity. In addition, we examined the three views (orthodox, liberal, and revisionist) that expressed the ecclesiastical forms of traditional theology. Finally, we have outlined the views of the Supreme Being, of man and of our ancestors as a key concept of the philosophy of African religions. Because of the lack of culture of literacy, this philosophy speaks in oral tradition.

1New Dictionary of Theology. (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1981) S.V. Theology is the D.F. Wright.

2 Alister E. McGrath. Christian Theology: Introduction. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994). 117.

3Ibid 117-118. Page

4John Parratt. A guide to theology. (London: SPCK, 1996). 35

5McGrath, p 118.

6Dr. L.A. Foullah, lectures on "TH 211 Christian Theology I" on SLBC, 1994.

7Bruce Milne. Know the truth. (Illinois: Inter-Varsity Press, 1982) p 16

8Ibid

9Osadolor Imasogie. Guidelines for Christian Theology in Africa. (Ghana: African Christian Press, 1983) 25-45. Page

10Ibid, p 31

11International Encyclopedia of Communications. Volume I (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989) S.V. Precolonical Africa by Ralph A. Austin

12Harry Sawyer. God: You are the Creator. (London: Longman Group Ltd., 1970), P. 1

13John S. Mbiti. African religions and philosophy. (London: Heinemann, 1969). 29

14Ibid, 108-109. Page

15Richard J. Gehman. The traditional religion in Africa in biblical perspectives. (Kenya, Kijabe: Kesho Publications, 1989), p 139

16Kofi Asare Opoku. West African religion. (Singapore: FEP, 1978) p. 36

17Gepffery Parrinder. The three religions in Africa. (London: Sheldon Press, 1969) p 69.

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